Causes, signs and management of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease affecting the central nervous system in which the immune system attacks myelin sheath covering nerve fibers.
The definite cause of multiple sclerosis is unclear, but medical studies showed that the multiple sclerosis tends to develop due to immunological and genetic causes, leading to the following clinical signs:
- Tingling and numbness of the lower extremities.
- Generalized muscle weakness and spasticity.
- Fine limb tremors.
- Deterioration of cognitive skills such as memory and concentration.
- Body imbalance problems.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Deterioration of vision.
- Speech disorders (in advanced or complicated cases).
- Psychological problems such as anxiety and depression.
- Insomnia and sleeping disorders.
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis needs performing clinical neurological examination as well as checking the patient's clinical history. Also, nerve conduction study and MRI scan with contrast are necessary to detect active lesions in the brain and spinal cord.
There is no definite cure for multiple sclerosis; all the available measures aim to slow progression of the disease and improving life style of the patient.